Putin has established good working relationships with the leaders of the GCC states, Israel, Egypt, Iran and Turkey.
The American era in the Middle East is over. Some termed this era “Pax Americana” but that is not appropriate since “pax” means “peace” and the past six decades in the region have been anything but peaceful.
Rather, the American era in the Middle East, which followed Britain’s withdrawal from the region, designates a period in which Washington was the dominant outside player in a tumultuous environment.
The Soviet Union had its Middle Eastern allies and clients during the Cold War but the resource-rich Gulf region was an American redoubt and Israel, the most militarily advanced country and only nuclear-armed power in the region, was a virtual 51st US state. Moscow lost its largest and most powerful regional ally when Egypt’s Anwar Sadat changed sides in 1972. (Read more…)